Doan Treasury Graphic

Friends and Foes of the Doan Gang

What happened to them?

Not all histories have tidy endings. To date, this exhibition has identified over sixty members of the Doan Gang, as well as numerous friends and foes. All led complex lives, but only fragmentary evidence has survived.

Some of their fates are know. For others, questions still remain. Some people who played a part in the Doan story are elusive in historical records, especially women and racial and religious minorities. Exhibition curators are convinced that no matter how elusive, more information about the Doans may still be uncovered.

Doan Gang Family

Aaron Doan was pardoned in 1787 and fled to Canada. He married Rhoda Cook and had several children. Aaron died in 1844 in Humberstone, Canada.

Abraham Doan was captured in Chester County in 1788 with his cousin Levy. They were both hanged in Philadelphia on September 24, 1788.

Hetty Doan was imprisoned with her cousin Abraham in 1784. She died April 14, 1847 and is buried in Ontario, Canada. 

Israel Doan III, brother to Abraham, is considered part of the "new generation" of the Gang. In 1787 he was in and out of prison for horse theft. He died January 8, 1848.

Israel Doan Jr., father of Abraham Doan, disappears from the historical record in 1783. It's believed he died in prison. 

Jonathan Doan is considered to be a "forgotten Doan." He moved to Canada around 1789 with Aaron and Joseph Jr.  Ironically, Jonathan's son Joshua, rebelled against the British government in Canada in 1837. Joshua was captured and executed in 1839.

A teacher, Joseph Doan Jr. fled to Canada with his brother Aaron Doan. During the War of 1812 he was imprisoned by the American army in New York. He returned to Bucks County in 1823 to collect a bequest. but later died in Canada in 1844.

Joseph Doan Sr., a "laborer" by trade, moved  to Canada with his wife Esther Dillon Doan to be close to their family. He was killed by a falling tree in Canada sometime between 1800-1810. 

Levy Doan was captured in Chester County in 1788 with his cousin Abraham. They were both hanged in Philadelphia on September 24, 1788.

Originally a "laborer," Mahlon Doan was captured in September 1783 in Bedford County, Pennsylvania. By November he disappears from the historical record. Some believe he escaped from prison and drowned himself, but family lore holds that he escaped and fled to England aboard a Loyalist ship.

Mary Doan married her first cousin Joseph Jr. She moved with her family to Canada. She died in Canada in 1850. 

Mary (Polly) Doan, sister to five of the principal outlaws, fled to Canada with her family. She married Samuel Doan and died in Canada on March 1, 1855.

Moses Doan, a "laborer" by trade, was shot and killed by Robert Gibson Jr. at Halsey's Cabin on August 26, 1783. 

Rachel Vickers Doan (mother to Abraham Doan) died around 1821 in Bucks County. 

Thomas Doan went to Canada with his surviving family members. He received a land grant from the British government in 1798. Thomas joined the Methodist Church in 1823 and died the same year.

More Doan Gang Members

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing.

John Atkinson Jr. was a blacksmith in Newtown. He died sometime after 1789.

Thomas Bulla opened a tavern in Randolph County, North Carolina in 1807. He died in North Carolina in 1809.

George Burns was a weaver in Plumstead, Bucks County. His fate is unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Henry Connard was a blacksmith from Maryland. His fate is unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Jeremiah Cooper worked as a wheelwright in Bucks County. He died in Upper Makefield sometime after 1795.

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Benjamin English was from New Jersey. His fate is unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Caleb Paul moved to Canada with his family and later settled in Beaver Harbor, Canada.

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Edward Richardson drowned in the Detroit River in 1816.

Thomas Richardson was executed for burglary on October 2, 1784 in Washington County Pennsylvania.

George Sinclair, a Chester County leatherworker, was apprehended in Manheim, Lancaster County in March 1788. He escaped the next month. He was arrested again in September 1788 in Northampton County. In 1789 he was sentenced to 10 years hard labor. In 1790 he wrote a clemency petition while imprisoned in Philadelphia. He may have lived in Virginia and Ohio later in life.

Former blacksmith Robert Steel was captured in Hillsborough, North Carolina in 1785. He was pardoned after initially being sentenced to death for outlawry.

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

John Tomlinson was hanged for robbery in Newtown, Bucks County on October 17, 1782.

Joseph Tomlinson, Jr. died sometime after 1793. 

Nathan Tomlinson was executed for burglary and robbery in New Jersey on August 29, 1782.

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Gideon Vernon fled to Canada, then returned to Chester County, before again returning to Canada. He died September 22, 1829 in Ontario, Canada.

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Amos White settled in Canada with other Gang members but returned to Bucks County. White died in 1826.

Amos Williams was captured with Robert Steel in North Carolina in 1785. They were brought to Philadelphia. He was then pardoned and returned to North Carolina.

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing.

Moses Winder died in Canada after 1800.

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing.

Doan Accomplices

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Mary Bulla inherited property from fellow accomplice William Echas in 1792. She died in 1814. 

In 1788, Sarah Bulla was indicted for assisting Abraham Doan. Her property in Chester County was seized and sold, and she was sentenced to serve two years hard labor in the Chester County Prison. 

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

William Echas died in 1792 in Chester County. He left his property to fellow accomplice Mary Bulla. 

John Ferril was a blacksmith in New Britain, Bucks County. His fate is unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Nathaniel Halsey served six months in the Newtown jail in 1784. He then disappears from the historical record. Research is ongoing. 

A physician, Dr. Isaac Michener died August 2, 1814.

John Richards operated a tavern in Richland Township until at least 1815.

Joshua Richards lived in the Richland Township, Bucks County area into the 1790s. He operated several taverns including the Red Lion Inn in Quakertown.

George Rodgers of Plumstead died sometime after 1807. 

Margaret Tomlinson (wife of John Tomlinson) died ca. 1810.

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Loyalists & Revolutionaries

Grace Galloway was forcibly removed from her property in August 1778 and never returned to the estate. She died in 1782 and left her property to her daughter, Betsy.

Joseph Galloway fled the United States for England in 1778. He was found guilty of “high treason” in absentia by the Pennsylvania Assembly. He died in England in 1803.

After being released early from the Philadelphia prison in 1788, Hall disappears from the historical record. 

Richard Hovendan, a Newtown merchant, surrendered with the British Army at Yorktown in 1781. He sailed to Ireland shortly after. Hovendan died sometime after 1784.

Walter Willett died April 30, 1812 in Annapolis County, Nova Scotia.

John Workman returned to Ireland. In 1791, he was discharged with the rank of sergeant from the 17th Regiment at the age of 52.

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

William Hart settled in Hartsville, Bucks County after the war. There he ran the "Sign Of The Heart" Tavern, and died on January 2, 1831.

Phillip Hinkle was an auctioneer and blacksmith. He established a tavern in 1794 on the Durham Road in Bucks County. He died May 15, 1814.

William Kennedy was mortally wounded in the Halsey Cabin shoot-out on August 26, 1783. He died September 1, 1783.

John Lacey died in Burlington County, New Jersey at the age of 59 on February 17, 1814.

William McCalla signed a 1788 petition calling for captured members of the Gang to be hanged. He died in 1815.

Robert Morris died in Forked River, New Jersey on May 8, 1806.

John Reynolds, who served as jailor in Philadelphia, died sometime after 1795.

George Wall, Jr.,  voted on punishments for former members of the Doan Gang as a representative of Bucks County on Pennsylvania’s Supreme Executive Council. He died in 1803.

Augustine Willett signed a 1788 petition asking that members of the Gang be hanged for their crimes. He died in 1824.

Doan Victims

Buckingham tax collector Job Barton was killed in a mill accident in 1784.

Joseph Dyer served as a tax collector for Plumstead. He left Bucks County sometimes in the 1780s or 1790s. He may have died around 1795.

Plumstead Tavern Keeper Robert Gibson Jr. died in Philadelphia on May 7, 1787.

Joseph Greer (Grier) died around 1830 in Chester County, Pennsylvania.

Bucks County Treasurer John Hart died in 1786 in Bucks County. 

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing.

Solebury Tax Collector Daniel Hough took over William Doyle's tavern in Doylestown in 1774, and sold it in 1776. Hough died sometime after 1789.

Elizabeth Hough was John Hart's daughter and witnessed the Treasury Robbery in Newtown. She died in Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, on July 3, 1860.

The fate of Upper Dublin Tax Collector Isaac Humphrey is unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Tax Collector Phillip Jenkins moved from Fayette County, Pennsylvania to Kentucky about 1800. He died there sometime after 1810.

John Keith, who served as tax collector for Upper Makefield, died April 20, 1826. 

Sarah Keith, sister to John Keith, died January 30, 1835 in Pickaway, Ohio.

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Robert Robinson operated a tavern in Bedminster, Bucks County. He drowned himself on July 7, 1788.

Joseph Sackett died in Wrightstown, Bucks County in 1798.

John Shaw died on May 24, 1790 in Plumstead, Bucks County. 

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing. 

Jonathan Stout, who served as the Tinicum Township militia fine collector, died sometime after 1785. 

John Thompson, an unconfirmed victim of the Doan Gang, died on July 18, 1799.

John Tucker, who served as tax collector for Buckingham Township, died February 27, 1808. 

Jacob Weaver, the Tinicum Township tax collector, died December 27, 1820.

Fate unknown. Research is ongoing.